Morse Code and the Telegraph were inventions fresh from the mind of Morse himself, using a unique series of dots and dashes to represent each individual letter in the English alphabet or any number zero through nine. The initial design was fairly rough, having many complex ways to communicate simple combinations of letters, but was refined over the years to a system similar to modern morse code we often use today.
Morse code was relayed over a system of telegraph wires strung above ground, the design taken in part from our European neighbors and refined to fit the specific needs of Morse. These wires would transport electrical impulses across long distances and would be received by an operator who would then translate the various dot and dash combinations into a readable message.
The design of this system was a long a tedious process involving copious amounts of testing and research involving existing designs for similar concepts like those developed by Carl Gauss and Wilhelm Weber in 1833 in Europe. Morse hoped this new technological invention would bring wealth and prestige to himself and his colleagues, as well as usher in a new era of technology where mankind would be able to conquer the vast distances of the physical world through a single cohesive communication network.