Louisiana as a Spanish Territory- LOUISIANA: EUROPEAN EXPLORATIONS AND THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE

A SPECIAL PRESENTATION FROM THE GEOGRAPHY AND MAP DIVISION
OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

Dublin Core

Title

Louisiana as a Spanish Territory- LOUISIANA: EUROPEAN EXPLORATIONS AND THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE

A SPECIAL PRESENTATION FROM THE GEOGRAPHY AND MAP DIVISION
OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

Subject

Spain was unsuccessful at maintaining enough foreign trade out of port New Orleans to maintain a profitable economy basically running it into the ground.

Description

"Louisiana was unable to develop and sustain the level of foreign trade required to support
economic growth. The strict regulation of Louisiana’s commerce by Spanish colonial authorities
was responsible for this stagnation. Irregular shipments of supplies, a perpetual want of currency
and credit, a scarcity of agricultural labor, and a lack of tradesmen and artisans, exacerbated the
situation. "

Source

Library of Congress- Changing Economic Relations with Citizens and Slaves in the Mississippi Territory," The Journal of American
History 72, no. 2 (September 1985), 297-317. 9
The original Church of Saint Louis was one of numerous structures in the city destroyed by the Great Fire of Good
Friday in March 1788. When the fire broke out, people rushed to the church to toll the bells as warning. However,
even though a conflagration was racing across the city, church bells are not allowed to ring on Good Friday. Hence,
the church burned to the ground. Its reconstruction was completed on the same site at the end of 1794 and the new
church was dedicated as a cathedral on Christmas Eve of that year. What was then a simple parish church became
the Basilica of Saint Louis, King Louis IX of France, by virtue of an Apostolic Brief, issued by Pope Paul VI in
1964.
10 Thomas Jefferson to Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., Washington City, May 14, 1801, Thomas Jefferson Papers,
Library of Congress.
11 Thomas Jefferson to William C. C. Claiborne, Washington City, July 13, 1801, Thomas Jefferson Papers, Library
of Congress.
12 Thomas Jefferson to James Monroe, Washington, January 13, 1803. James Monroe Papers, Library of Congress.
13 Robert R. Livingston to James Madison, Paris, April 11, 1803, American State Papers, Foreign Relations, 2, 552. 14 Quoted in marquis Francois de Barbe-Marbois, History of Louisiana, 286. 15 Quoted in Robert R. Livingston to James Madison, Paris, May 20, 1803, “State Papers and Correspondence
Bearing upon the Purchase of the Territory of Louisiana,” 57th Cong., 2nd sess., H.R. Doc. no. 431, 200. 16 Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, August 16, 1803, Monticello, James Madison Papers, Library of Congress.
17 Thomas Jefferson to John Dickinson, August 9, 1803, Monticello, Thomas Jefferson Papers, Library of Congress.
18 The lower Mississippi Valley, in particular, was well represented in the archives and official repositories of
Europe, Mexico, and Cuba. Several hundred maps, charts, and plans of Louisiana from the French and Spanish
colonial periods of occupation reveal a wealth of information on early explorations, hydrography, topography,
coastal areas, military campaigns, design and construction of forts, roads, and locations of Native American tribal
territories and villages. See Jack D. L. Holmes, "Maps, Plans and Charts of Louisiana in Spanish and Cuban
Archives: a Checklist," Louisiana Studies 2, no. 4 (Winter 1963), 183-203; and Holmes, "Maps, Plans, and Charts of
Louisiana in Paris Archives: a Checklist," Louisiana Studies 4, no. 3 (Fall 1965), 200-21. 19 John Logan Allen, Passage Through the Garden: Lewis and Clark and the Image of the American Northwest
(Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1975), 55.
20 John Logan Allen, "Geographical Knowledge and American Images of the Louisiana Territory," in Geographic
Perspectives on America’s Past; Reading on the Historical Geography of the United States, edited by David Ward
(New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), 39. 21 For the preparation of “The Cartographic Setting: Evolving European and American Conceptions of Louisiana to
1803,” I am greatly indebted to the generosity and learning of the cartographic historian Ralph E. Ehrenberg, whose
authoritative work, "Exploratory Mapping of the Great Plains Before 1800," in Mapping the North American Plains:
Essays in the History of Cartography, edited by Frederick C. Luebke (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press,
1987), has inspired the thematic and organizational framework of this section of the presentation, and has also
provided it with much of its information, particularly in regard to the exploratory mapping of Vérendrye, Pond,
Evans, Mackay, and Soulard.
22 Jean Delanglez, "The Sources of the Delisle Map of America, 1703," Mid-America 25, no. 4 (1943), 275-98. 23 William P. Cumming, et al., The Exploration of North America, 1630-1776 (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons,
1974), 182.
24 Ralph E. Ehrenberg, "Exploratory Mapping of the Great Plains Before 1800," in Mapping the North American
Plains: Essays in the History of Cartography, edited by Frederick C. Luebke (Norman:University of Oklahoma
Press, 1987), p. 13
25 Ralph E. Ehrenberg, "Exploratory Mapping of the Great Plains Before 1800," in Mapping the North American
Plains: Essays in the History of Cartography, edited by Frederick C. Luebke (Norman: University of Oklahoma
Press, 1987), 13-16.
26 Richard Glover, ed., David Thompson’s Narrative, 1784-1812 (Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1962), 181.
117
27 Richard I. Ruggles, "Mapping the Interior Plains of Rupert’s Land by the Hudson’s Bay Company to 1870," in
Mapping the North American Plains: Essays in the History of Cartography, edited by Frederick C. Luebke
(Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987), 153.
28 William P. Cumming, et al., The Exploration of North America, 1630-1776 (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons,
1974),163.
29 This information was reported to the author by Anthony P. Mullan, reference specialist, Humanities and Social
Sciences Division, Library of Congress, on June 19, 2001.
30 Henri Folmer, "Contraband Trade between Louisiana and New Mexico in the 18th Century," The New Mexico
Historical Review, 16 (1941), 249-74. 31 Aubrey Diller, "Maps of the Missouri River Before Lewis and Clark," in Studies and Essays in the History of
Science and Learning, edited by M. F. Ashley Montague (New York: Arno Press, 1975), 509. 32 ________, "A new map of the Missouri River drawn in 1795," Imago Mundi 12 (1955), 175-80. 33 Ehrenberg, "Exploratory Mapping of the Great Plains," 22.
34 W. Raymond Wood, "Nicholas de Finiels: Mapping the Mississippi & Missouri Rivers, 1797-98," Missouri
Historical Review 81, no. 4 (July1987), 387-402. 35 Ehrenberg, "Exploratory Mapping of the Great Plains," 23.
36 ibid., 186.
37 Carl I. Wheat, Mapping the Transmississippi West, 1540-1861 1 (San Francisco: The Institute of Historical
Cartography, 1957), 164.
38 Thomas Jefferson, autobiography draft fragment, entry for May 17th, 1821, 82 and 85, Thomas Jefferson Papers,
Library of Congress.
39 Seymour I. Schwartz and Ralph E. Ehrenberg, The Mapping of America (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.), 225. 40 Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, August 30, 1807, Monticello, James Madison Papers, Library of Congress.
41 Donald Jackson, Thomas Jefferson and the Stony Mountains, 133. 42 Walter W. Ristow, American Maps and Mapmakers: Commercial Cartography in the Nineteenth Century
(Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1985), 446. 43 Thomas Jefferson to John Melish, Monticello, December 31, 1816, Thomas Jefferson Papers, Library of
Congress.
44 D. W. Meinig, The Shaping of America; A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History. 2: Continental
America, 1800-1867 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993), 23.

Citation

“Louisiana as a Spanish Territory- LOUISIANA: EUROPEAN EXPLORATIONS AND THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE

A SPECIAL PRESENTATION FROM THE GEOGRAPHY AND MAP DIVISION
OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS ,” Union to Disunion, accessed June 16, 2019, http://projects.leadr.msu.edu/uniontodisunion/items/show/406.