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Fall 2019

The Rise of Standard Oil

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An exhibit showing the events and circumstances leading to the rise of Standard Oil.

European Immigrants in the 19th century

An exhibit on European immigrants in the 19th century

The Changing Roles of Women in the Gilded Age

The changing roles of women from the early 19th century to the Gilded Age and the ramifications and causes of those changes.

Extinguishing American Labor Unions in The Gilded Age

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Exploring Labor Unions in the American Gilded Age.

In this exploration I thought I was going to find labor strikes that were the most "socialist" were to be met with the greatest force to extinguish the strike. Instead I found that the fragile nation that had just reconstructed from the Civil War could not afford any civil disobedience. It was not the federal government and it's state power that was afraid of marxist ideas, instead it was the state maintaining its union and keeping it far from a Civil War, but the state sided with the Capitalist and the strikes were shot down. The only power workers had was defeated. The fire inside all workers alike was put out by the federal government, even during  a nationwide strike, consisting of 27 states and territories and 100,000 workers.[4]

The Great Railroad Strike of 1877: The Fight for Workers Rights

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The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 was an influential movement in the fight for the rights of railroad workers nationwide. The strike started at the Ohio and Baltimore Railroad company in 1877 due to a second wage cut in eight months. This started a movement of strikes across the country in an effort to get the equality that laborers and railroad workers deserve. The workers had sunrise to sundown work hours with little pay and benefits, and on top of that their job was very hard and dangerous. Workers were always at risk of injuring themselves or even death if a worker was to get injured they would miss out on money to support their family. Big time corporations thought only of themselves and the best way to say money, they could care less about how their workers were treated. Eventually, railroad workers reached their final straw and stuck up for themselves.

Eventually, the strikes were stopped by government interference and many felt that the strikes had no direct outcome. On the other hand, the strikes across the country weren't for nothing, they sparked a fire in the hearts of many laborers and railroad workers across the nation and got them to stand up for themselves. These strikes would have been the motivator in future workers fight for their own rights, which would eventually catch the attention of the government and big corporations. Although there were no direct effects of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, the aftershock would alter the way American workers do their jobs forever.

Populist Party Platform of the Gilded Age

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This exhibit is an overview of the Populist Party's platform during the gilded age. This party was a working class movement that consisted of farmers and the working poor. they fought for various things such as the direct election of senators as well as currency reform. Their impact was profound, yet short lived in the gilded age. The party itself was never able to hold much power, but their ability to push their agenda to the forefront of American politics was truly remarkable.

Education Reform During the Progressive Era

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The progressive era (1900-1920) was a time of great reform both in fields of society and politics. One of the main things that social activists tried to reform was the educational system in America. Many changes were put into place at both the secondary level and the elementary level of education. In secondary education, more choices in classes were offered to students. [1] During this era the students were able to pick electives for the first time. There was an increase in the vocational and technical studies in schools. Those classes were eventually turned into separate schools. Also, the age of people that were going to school was lowered. There were new kindergartens that allowed students to start school earlier. [2] They also tried to lower class sizes to help the students learn. Many of these concepts came from people like John Dewey and teachers that actually worked with the students on a daily basis. Due to things like new teaching methods, influential activists like John Dewey, and changes in the way Americans view education we can understand the effects that educational reform had on the United States. 

[1] David N. Plank, “Educational Reform and Organizational Change,” Journal of Urban History 15, no. 1 (1988): pp. 22-41

[2]David N. Plank

Prohibition Propaganda

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The era of prohibition in today's terms seems like a quite radical movement, leaving us to wonder how did this become such a large movement in the United States and why? Who started this new ideal and how did they manage to get a whole amendment added to the constitution? These questions have many answers that ultimately involve religious undertones in addition to intentions of furthering the women's rights movement that was emerging during the Gilded Age and the progressivism era. Answers also include the large influx of immigrants that were moving to the United States at the time. The following documents include various forms of media to help to explain how prohibition gained popularity, the basic ideals behind the movement, and what happened after prohibition was enforced. 

Populist Party of the Gilded Age

This exhibit is an overview of the Populist Party during the gilded age. This party was a working class movement that consisted of farmers and the working poor. they fought for various things such as the direct election of senators as well as currency reform. Their impact was profound, yet short lived in the gilded age.

Mark Twain: America's Everyman?

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Born in the rustic south in the year 1835, a man named Samuel Langhorne Clemens was catapulted into small town life in Missouri during one of its most important yet trying times in US history. He was a witness of rural American life in one of its most raw, unforgiving settings, partaking in several lines of laborious, blue collar work. Quickly, however, his talents catapulted him into a life of possibilities beyond what many people could dream.

 

In this brief, guided analysis of his life and impact, we will analyze the life of Twain in hopes qualifying his status as America’s Everyman or revealing how he managed to mask his priviledge and fashion himself into one of the most relatable, recognizable, and influential figures of the Gilded Age (a term he coined) and American history at large.

Alice Paul and the Women's Suffrage Movement

Alice Paul's work with the Women's suffrage movement during the gilded age. 

Accomplishments of Women in the Gilded Age

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In a time with much male power, females had to rise up and accomplish many different things for themselves. The Gilded Age is well known for its corruption of the political machines, but in my opinion, leaves out the important work females did for their communities, families, and America. I hope to convey to the reader that although many books and articles you read about the late 1800’s, and early 1900’s are not about women at all, they were behind the scenes making great impacts for the economy, their civil rights, and education for children.

This was a time in American history which was mainly remembered for its political and economical uprise. However, not many seem to recognize the political, civil, and educational achievements that women made, through this time of strong and greedy males.

This exhibit will take you through different movements, and achievements of women during the late 1800's to the early 1900's. Enjoy. 

The Changing Roles of Women in the Gilded Age

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Women of the Gilded Age were breaking away from the norms that restricted their mothers' to the Cult of Domesticity. Many were entering into higher education, working, some were campaigning for the right to vote, and many were building the roots of the Progressive Era and modern day social services. Women did many important things during this time period, one in which is only taught as an era of political machines and big business corruption. These women are our ancestors, they are the reason we are all here today. I believe it is only right to showcase the brave women who challenged the status quo to achieve women's rights and lead us to  the United States of America as we know it today.

This exhibit aims to analyze the extent to which women of all types saw their lives transformed during the Gilded Age (1870-1920). This will be researched through classes, race, and even geographically. Enjoy!

Women Post WWI: A Cultural Reformation

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Before World War I, America was already known as an economic superpower. Recognized by its newly emerging bustling cities, open arms for an influx of immigrants, and countless opportunities, the United States became the place where everyone wanted to be. The country was filled with prosperity and economic growth that allowed its residents to flourish; these residents being men. Women unfortunately were not growing as exponentially as the rest of the country. Luckily, by 1914 when the war first started, women began realizing their full potential and impact as females in this male dominated society. As women asserted their dominance it became clear that the stereotypical house wife would be no more. The expectations of a simple life characterized by a woman cleaning, cooking and taking care of the children was going to become sparse especially due to the determination and advocates supporting the bettering and independence of women. World War I was the prelude for political reform, individual rights, and self-love for women, that would continue decades after the War. The evolution of women, ultimately lead to the cultural reformation of America that also included men. The need for new gender roles fed reformation and after World War One, it was women's mission to reinvent themselves. More women found themselves with extra money from disposable incomes and were able to find themselves through dancing, expressive fashion and leisure activies. This transition into a new era of women aided in the transition into a new, more powerful and integrated America.

 

 

Theodore Roosevelt: A Conflicted Man

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Nearing the end of the long 19th century, an era took place in America from around the 1870’s into early 1900. This era would be filled with innovation, corruption, social inequality, reform, monopolies, racism and immigration; it would be known as “The Gilded Age”. Many larger than life individuals rose to prominence, during this era, all for varying reasons. Innovators like Henry Ford, Thomas Edison, and Alexander Graham Bell. Cutthroat businessmen like Andrew Carnegie, J.P. Morgan, and John D. Rockefeller. Social Reformers like Susan B. Anthony, Jane Addams, and Robert La Follette. But one individual stands out from the rest, President Theodore Roosevelt. Teddy is widely remembered as a progressive figure during The Gilded Age, but was he really a progressive during an era of such corruption and social strife or just another conservative politician from the era?

Theodore Roosevelt is such an interesting figure because he is difficult to characterize as progressive or conservative, he fits into both categories. Roosevelt was seemingly a conflicted man that was struggled with different ideas of what was right and what was wrong. One can find evidence of him making contradictory moves. This can lead to multiple interpretations of his actions, one being that he flip-flops on issues to appease voters, another being that he viewed each scenario individually; believing that each scenario had specific factors that changed how it should be handled. Finally, a view could be that Theodore Roosevelt was a man conflicted with what to do, and while his actions may sometimes be contradictory, each time he was doing what he believed to be the correct action. This exhibit will look to shed light on the contradictory nature of Theodore Roosevelt and the conflicted nature of his ideological stance.

Theodore Roosevelt: the First Modern President

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Theodore Roosevelt is remembered by most for his adventures bear-hunting, leading the Rough Riders in Cuba, and countless other American legends. Yet the most lasting impact of his time as President of the United States was on the office itself. The Presidency as we know it had not existed until Theodore Roosevelt ascended into Office in 1901. Characterized by an unprecedented expansion of power, the Roosevelt presidency was the first of modern presidencies. 

Prohibition and its Effect on Organized Crime

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While organized crime began to appear in our country in the late 1800's, prohibiton was the igniting force which launced organized crime into the forefront of the country. Organized crime got it's roots America during the late 1800s, with the mass immigration of Europeans into the country. Once settling in American cities like New York, these ethnic groups tended to settle into neighborhoods that were surrounded by the same ethnic group. Groups such as the Italians, the Jewish, The Irish, and the Germans began to form organized crime syndicates, which in their early day's, focused on activities like loansharking and gambling. The crime groups were able to thrive off of the discrimination most early immigrants encountered when they go there. By being able to assisst those of the same ethnic background, these groups were able to take adavantage of the desperateness most of these immigrants faced when they got here, and were able to profit off of it. However, the organized crime that we think of today was able to expand the profits of these groups and lead to more powerful and organized crime syndicates in this country, which is what we think of today as modern organized crime. 

With the ban on alcohol, modern day crime syndicates like La Cosa Nostra, Detroit's Purple Gang, and Al Capone's Chicago Outfit were able to establish lucrative bootlegging routes and take control of the underworld in some of the largest American cities at the time. In this exhibit I plan to show how prohibtion helped organized crime takeoff in this country  and lay the roots for their continued prominence. 

Prohibition began on December 5th, 1920 with the passage of the 18th amendment (Encyclopedia Britannica 2019).  Prohibition was the result of the temperance movement; a movement based on the abstinence of alcohol and rose to prominence through churches (Britannica 2019). The temperance movement was great at being able to combine moral and political action. What made the temperance movement unique was the organized cooperation of women (Britannica 2019). However, prohibition created a divide amongst the American people. While prohibition was tabbed as a win for the American society by prohibitionists, common, everyday people still willingly sought out booze and even created their own (Brown 1916). One of the unwanted issues that arose from the prohibition of alcohol was the power struggle amongst local gangs in major cities across the country to control the import and export of alcohol throughout their respective cities. Cities like New York, Detroit, and Chicago became hotbeds for gang activity and led to notorious organizations such as La Cosa Nostra of New York, and The Outfit of Chicago rising to the forefront of modern American culture.

 

Sources

Britannica, The Editors of Encyclodpedia. 2019. Temperance Movement . 10 07. https://www.britannica.com/topic/temperance-movement.[1]

Brown, L. Ames. 1916. "Is Prohibition American?" The North American Review 413-419.[2]

Encyclopedia Britannica . 2019. https://www.britannica.com/event/Prohibition-United-States-history-1920-1933. 02 28. Accessed 09 24, 2019.[3]

 

The 1880 Republican National Convention: Grant's Final Defeat

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Today, one of the most important avenues to political success is name recognition. Within the past 50 years, Ronald Reagan and Donald Trump have owed their political success partly due to their previous occupation as entertainers while Hillary Clinton and George W. Bush were aided because of their relation to another president. As the 1880 Presidential Election was approaching, one Republican competing for his party’s nomination, Ulysses S. Grant, would have been known to virtually everyone in the Union as a war hero and former two-term president. By 1880, Grant had decided to throw his hat back into the political arena after being out of politics since 1877 and seek an unprecedented third term as President. However, despite his status as a war hero and elder statesman, he failed to even win the nomination of his own party at the 1880 Republican National Convention in Chicago despite leading the balloting most of the way through. This exhibit aims to answer the question of how and why Grant failed to succeed in his quest for the Republican nomination despite the advantages he seemingly had over his rivals.

Henry Ford and the Middle Class

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Henry Ford revoluntioned the manufacturing industry. He also had a major impact on the middle class while doing so. 

The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

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The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire devastated New York City after 146 garment workers perished in a fire in which they were unable to escape.  What could have been a small accident turned into a catastrophe because the owners locked all of the exits to prevent workers from stealing or taking a break.  The Triangle Fire started a wave of reform and progressivism that helped shaped the future of America. Over 20 fire/labor reform laws were passed during the years after the fire, as well as the creation of the Factory Investigation Commission.  The commission investigated thousands of factories by the end of the two year mark. Union membership soared after the fire, especially the garment makers unions such as the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union.

Through the ashes of the Triangle Fire came great change and advancement in labor and fire safety laws.

Henry Ford, His Life and how he Changed Manufacturing

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Henry Ford's image and name is still seen all throughout aspects of history since is Motor company opened their doors in the 20th Century. The name "Ford" has been seen all over pop-culture. From seeing his cars on the high-way, to seeing the same cars on the big screen. His name has been seen all throughout United States History, even making it all the way up to the White house with President Ford taking office after the resignment of President Nixon. 

While he is often thought of as both the inventor of the automobile and the Assembly line, he wasn't, instead he was the one to perfect both and made way for the industrial revolution to take over. 

He did much more than just change manufactoring, he also started the $5 work day for his employees, and trasnformed much of what Detroit was into what it became. 

Phillipine Insurrection: American Imperailsm

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The American War in the Philippines represented a turning point for the United Sates. What was once an isolated nation struggling with its own domestice issues, quiuckly propelled itself into becoming an economic powerhouse on the world stage. Along with growing business interests and competiteion against Europeon nations, American leadership felt compelled to expand their teorritories in the name of economic gain.

 

America's aqucisiton of the Philippiens came under a false pretense of liberation from the Spnaish. Following the Spanish-American war, the United States had promised to aid the Phillipines in its quest for soverignty and pull out soon. However, the natives quickly came to realize that this was not going to be the reality.

 

The United States had to contend with many new issues in becoming a world power. This exhibit will explore the United States' jounrey onto the world stage as it stumbled through the geopolitical landscape.

Irish Immigration To the United States

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During the Guilded Ages, there was an influx of immigrant groups moving to the United States due to a variety of push and pull factors. While some were fleeing harsh conditions, others were in search of opportunity. One of these groups was the Irish and their immigration to the United States had a huge effect because over half of Ireland's population made this move. While some were motivated by the vast opportunity that was seemingly available in the United States, most fled Ireland because of the awful conditions.

Connecting the Country: The North Pacific Railroad

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The Northern Pacific Railroad

Beginning in 1864, Abraham Lincoln had the idea for three different transcontinetnal railroads. The Northern Pacific Railroad was designed to connect the Great Lakes region with the Pacific Ocean. This railroad, often overshadowed by the Transcontinental Railroad, connected North and South Dakota, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington to the rest of America. The Northern Pacific Railroad’s path was created with maps from Lewis and Clark's expedition.

Many men were tasked with creating the railroad but construction would not begin until many years later as the Northern Pacific Railroad Company went through lots of financial troubles. The construction of the railroad was a long and dangerous process, as the wilderness of the northwest proved to be a difficult place to build. To fund the railroad, several companies were absorbed into the Northern Pacific Company, which was eventually owned by Henry Villard.

Through lots of hard work, Villard was able to successfully complete the railroad on September 8th, 1883, where Villard held a "golden spike" ceremony with over 3,000 people in attendance. The railroad was heavily advertised for its stylish trains and the beautiful sights it passes by. Through the creation of the Northern Pacific Railroad, America was given another way to connect coast to coast.

A Splendid Little War

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An in depth look at the underlying causes and motivations of the Spanish American War and their relationship to growing American Imperialism during the period.

The Great Railroad Strike of 1877

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The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 was not just one strike, but a series of violent strikes that spread across the United States during a time of an economic depression. 

The sheer scale of this strike shook the nation to it's roots. In 1850, there was only a mere 10,000 miles of railroad track, but by 1877 there was a booming 79,000 miles of track that crossed the United States14. The railroad industry was the biggest commercial sector in the U.S. at the time, which meant this industry could be regarded as the backbone of the country. 

To summarize loosely, American railway workers were at the pinnacle of the economic downturn and with labor unions and the lack of support for them only brought unfair and unsafe working conditions. The series of strikes was supported across the country from the surrounding communities and resulted in state militias and federal troops to contain them. Ultimately, the aftermath of the strikes had no real impact regarding the railroad industry. 

This exhibit will show the events that lead to the strike, the cities that took a stand to strike, the aftermath and accomplishments of the strike, and lastly a map showcasing how far the strike spread. 

Indigenous-American Relations in the Gilded Age

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The year is 1866. The South is defeated, the Union whole again, and the slaves made free. A major population within the United States that would continue to struggle for equal rights and citizenship until after the First World War were the indigenous people both "civilized" and not. Despite the guarantees of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness the United States during the Gilded Age would broker treaties with native tribes only to later break them, create family plots to encourage a more tame form of life, and attempt to "kill the indian in him, and save the man" by assimilating younger generations through boarding schools. The United States failed in establishing any formal peace with the people that were long here before European settlers arrived. Due to Capitalist interests and American expansionism indigenous people were forced to adapt Euro-American culture or face the military might of the United States should they attempt to hold on to reservations and religious land previously guaranteed to them. 

Jewish Immigration In Gilded Age America

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Jewish immigration to the united states in the late 19th-early 20th century. Covers reasons for coming, integration and employment, resistance/anti-Semitism, and impact/legacy.

This website is designed to help readers better understand why Jewish immigration to America is/was significant not only for Jewish Americans but for all in the gilded/progressive era.

 

The Chinese Exclusion Act

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This presentation is about the Chinese Exclusion Act and its motivations. This research will argue that the act was implemented due to a prejudice against the Chinese as opposed to any legitimate economic consideration.

Civil Rights Cases of 1883

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    The day of October 15th, 1883 forever altered the course of civil rights in the United States. Nearly two decades after the conclusion of the Civil War, in a period of reconstruction and a deeply segregated South, the U.S. seemingly halted the progression of equality for its African American citizens with the passing of the Civil Rights Cases of 1883.

    This exhibit offers an in-depth look at the Civil Rights Cases of 1883. However, this exhibit does not only focus on the cases but rather insight into the deeply segregated, and unpleasant reality of the United States between the mid-1870s to slightly before the turn of the twentieth century. Not only was life significantly altered for African American citizens during this time, but the passing of these cases foreshadowed that the journey of achieving basic civil rights for African Americans and other minorities would not come without difficulties and complications. 

    By delving into all that preceded and succeeded the Civil Rights Cases of 1883, it is crucial to consider the overall impacts that these cases had on American society, including the time in which the cases were ratified, and the current day status of civil rights. With the inclusion of primary source documents such as newspapers, photos, and other primary and secondary accounts as evidence, this exhibit demonstrates the influence of the Civil Rights Cases of 1883 towards the future of civil rights in the United States. Ultimately, the Civil Rights Cases of 1883 halted the progression of civil rights, with the development of Jim Crow laws and the ruling of Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896) as prime results that stemmed from the non-embracive nation that the United States largely was until the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s began to dissolve the unsettling nature of civil rights issues within America. 

 

by Rachel Piel

The Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 and Immigrants in America

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This exhibit is regarding the anti-immigration feelings in America especially in the late 19th century that leads to the Chinese exclusion act of 1882. And comparing it with the modern immigration bans.

The Early History of Film in Gilded Age America

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Film was invented during the Gilded Age of America, the 1870's through the early 1900'S. The technology was a new genre of entertainment. The film industry developed slowly over time beginning in 1878 with Eadweard Muybridge's science experiment named "Sally at a Gallop". The fact that Muybridge created a moving picture film came as the result of a freak innovation. The growing economic viability of this form of entertainment was a big motivating factor in the advancement of film.  Practioners had other motives to develop film such as preserving history, advancing science, educating the public, trying to outdo all other film maker's products and producing a large income for film makers.  What started as an new development, has become one of the biggest money makers of all times. Hollywood soon discovered a new means of gaining monumental wealth, and the rest is history. 

The Working Class and the Gilded Age

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Exploration into actions of the working class

Separate not Equal: Plessy v. Ferguson’s Influence on Modern Discrimination

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In 1892, passenger Homer Plessy was arrested and tried for violating the Separate Car Act that Louisiana enforced, sitting in the incorrect Whites only section of the train car. After losing his original trial, Plessey and his legal team filed for an appeal to be tried before the United States Supreme Court.

The 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court ruling defined the racial climate of the Gilded Age, introducing de jure segregation and shaped modern discrimination. The Plessey v. Ferguson ruling influenced modern discrimination because it constitutionally justified segregation, sanctioned the continuation of Jim Crow segregation, and it stirred civil rights protests for the next half-century.

It tells the story of how newly freed African Americans first lost their chance at reparations and civil rights with the death of reconstruction and the birth of Jim Crow. This court decision reveals how success and opportunity were racial determined during the Gilded Age. The Gilded Age was the birth of women’s suffrage, industrialization, it was an era of personal economic wealth and the emerging of the middle class. We also see Irish and other white immigrants gain U.S. citizen status, but African Americans suffered a great violation of rights and lack of opportunities during this era. This ultimately was a defining era in modern history and for African Americans, the decisions made between 1877-1920, authorized the discrimination Black Americans faced.

Immigration in the Progressive Era

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This exhibit focuses on immigration to the US during the Progressive Era. The main components of this exhibit are: American views on immigrants; immigrant demographics ; integration and role of immigrants in American society; laws regarding immigration and Americanization policy; changes in immigration from the Gilded Age; and role of eugenics in immigration policy.

 

Alice Paul and the Women's Suffrage Movement

Alice Paul was one of the United States most prominent suffragist, activist, and strategist throughout the Women's Suffrage Movement.

European immigrantion in the late 1800s

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During the late 1800s, the United States experienced a huge flow of European immigrantsto the United States that were seeking opportunities in different parts of the United States.Especially when living conditions in Europe did not support low-income individuals as taxeswere rising and jobs were scares. These younger uneducated male workers were the primary type of immigrants to cross the US border looking for jobs. They presented a mean to an end by
filling low skill jobs that were in high demand in the North, as the economy was relying on machine operators and factory workers in working conditions that were considered to an extent dangerous. The European immigrants had accelerated the technological and industrial advancement in a way that shaped our economic system positively for the generations that
followed, despite the negative impact they had when resisting the integration of labor markets between the north and the south.

Alice Paul: Feminism and Suffrage

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Alice Paul was a suffragist and political strategist that used her education and beliefs to lead the Woman’s National Party through riots, protests, and more in the fight for equal rights for women. Born in 1885, in Mt. Laurel, New Jersey, she spent her life dedicated to the suffragist and feminist movement and even introduced the first Equal Rights Amendment in 1923. 

Alice Paul and her work portray dedication, determination, and perseverance in every sense. She embodied the word “Feminist” and continued to fight for equality long after many suffragists quit. She believed that men and women are equal and fought for this belief long after the gilded age and until her death in 1977. 

Jacob Riis and New York City

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By the late 19th century, American cities had fundimentally changed. Immigrants from Europe and Asia had flooded the continent. Many immigrants settled into their own communities such as Chinatown in San Francisco and German communities in Chicago. No other place in America represented this change more than New York City. Jacob Riis expirenced this firsthand during his visit to New York in the 1890s.

 

 

Civil Rights and The Birth of a Nation

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The Gilded Age was a time of new things in America, all the way from new immigrants and religions, new social classes being developed, and even new technology. One of the biggest things developed in this era is something that is still a giant part of culture today; film.

The Birth of a Nation by D.W Griffith is no doubt a revolutionary film. It was the first long full feature film in America. It was even viewed at the White house by President Wilson. It captures the innovative advancements in technology tht represent the late Gilded Age and into the Progressive Era.

Despite this, the film is notorious for promoting racism. From showing the Ku Klux Klan as heros, to portrayls demening black men through blackface, The Birth of a Nation reflects, and is an end result, of all the oppressive acts that African Americans were subject to during this time and years prior.

Boss Tweed: The Power of Tammany Hall

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In the mid-to-late 19th century, Tammany Hall's grasp over New York City politics was undeniable. A Democratic political orgnization, it eventually came to enough power to take complete control of the city government. With immigrant backing, bribery, and a colorful and wide variety of other machinations, Tammany Hall was the puppet master behind the curtain pulling the strings of millions of citizens in New York City. A major reason that Tammany Hall was able to reach the heights that it did was due to the genius scheming that William M. Tweed was able to accomplish as the head of the Hall. William, also known as Boss, estabished dominance over the political battlefield of New York until his downfall.