Australopithecus anamensis -- KNM-KP 29281

Dublin Core


Australopithecus anamensis -- KNM-KP 29281


KNM-KP 29281 is a 4.1 million-year-old mandible from Kenya that has been designated as the type specimen for the species Australopithecus anamensis.

Fossil Item Type Metadata


Peter Nzube

Type Specimen

KNM-KP 29281

Location (Country)


Site (Name)


Discovery Date

September 10, 1994

Specimen/Species Time Range

4.1 million years ago

Dating Method

40Ar/39Ar dating of the layer of volcanic ash the specimen was found in.

Specimen Data (Morphology)

This adult mandible, which contains all the teeth, is small, narrow, and has significantly straight and parallel tooth rows, similar to what is seen in Miocene ape mandibles. When examined from a lateral view, one can see that the specimen is missing both ascending rami. Additionally, the mandible has a mandibular torus--a bony buttress found along the lingual side of the premolars.

As for tooth morphology, KNM-KP 29281 has large molars, canines that are larger than those seen in later Australopithecines, a thick enamel, and a small canine/premolar diastema. These tooth morphologies give Au. anamensis a more primitive status among the Australopithecines.


Occlusal view of KNM-KP 29281
Lateral view of KNM-KP 29281
Date Added
April 7, 2017
Item Type
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“Australopithecus anamensis -- KNM-KP 29281,” Hominid Fossil Repository, accessed May 28, 2022,