Dublin Core




Dmanisi skull 5


Tsvariani, D. (n.d.). Hominins. Retrieved April 18, 2017, from http://dmanisi.ge/page?id=12&lang=en

Fossil Item Type Metadata

Type Specimen


Specimen Name/Nickname

Dmanisi Skull 5

Location (Country)

Republic of Georgia

Site (Name)


Discovery Date


Specimen/Species Time Range

1.77 million years old

Dating Method

In 2000, uneroded basaltic lava under the Dmanisi site was absolutely dated to 1.85 million years ago.

Specimen Data (Morphology)

D2600, the mandible associated with D4500 was discovered in 2000, just above the basalt layer. The mandible is unusually large compared to the rest of the samples and other Homo erectus fossils. The teeth are worn all the way to the roots. One peculiarity arose in the analysis of the fossil; the P3s are double rooted. The remarkable features and unusual size of this mandible is the reason the genus and species of Homo georgicus was initially created , although some argue tfor intrapopulational varitation. This fossil is the type specimen for H. georgicus.

D4500, the cranium associated with D2600. is the first completely preserved adult hominin cranium from the early Pliestocene. It presents a strange combination of features. Of all the Dmanisi skulls, this one has the smallest cranial capacity at 546 cm3. Coupled with this, however, it has large teeth and a protruding face. Amongst the collection of the 4 other Dmanisi skulls, this skull gives us the first insight into morphological variation within a paleopopulation of early Homo

D4500 had a lot of trauma and pathology that likely resulted from a long lifespan. The large teeth are badly worn down and were probably infected at the time of death. The right zygomatic shows a poorly healed fracture, and the left mandibular joint shows signs of chronic arthritic inflammation which led to some deformation.


Date Added
March 21, 2017
Early Homo Group 3
Item Type
“D4500/D2600,” Hominid Fossil Repository, accessed July 13, 2020, http://projects.leadr.msu.edu/hominidfossils/items/show/33.